The Battle of Lund, December 4, 1676
The advance, vanguard battle
01.30 the Swedish army breaks camp at Lilla Harrie.
04.00 the Swedish army begins to cross the ice over the river Kävlingeån at Rinnebäcksmölla.
07.00 the Swedish vanguard reaches Stångby church. At about this time, the Danish outposts are alerted and the Danish army goes into full combat readiness.
Meanwhile, the Swedish army continues along the road towards Lund.
8.30-9.00 the Swedish vanguard meets the Danes immediately north of Lund. The battle ends with the Swedes occupying this area of high ground. Following this initial conflict, the Swedish right flank meets the Danish left flank between Väderkvarnshöjden (now Bryggeriet – the Brewery) and Lerbäckshög (by the Monument).
10.00 After heavy fighting, the Danish left flank is pushed back and flees towards the river Kävlingeån hounded by Swedish troops led by Charles XI. Most of the Danish troops including Christian V escape across the river and continue towards Landskrona. However, many Danish soldiers drown. Charles XI and some of the highest Swedish commanders are now a long way from the battlefield in Lund.
10.00-12.00 the remainder of the armies fight each other in the area along the road to Kävlinge. The Danish cavalry and artillery prove superior. There is also uncertainty amongst the Swedish army as to the fate of the king. After much fighting, both sides pull back to reorganize and then move south towards Lund.
13.15—14.15 heavy fighting takes place in the area immediately to the north of the city. This ends with the Swedes grouped around the heights of Väderkvarnshöjden. The Danes prepare for a final assault, and, as they are clearly numerically superior, their victory seems imminent.
Around 14.15 Charles XI returns to the battlefield at the head of nine squadrons of cavalry. Faced with the threat of being encircled, the Danes turn to fight these newcomers. The Swedes are pressed back by the superior Danish forces, however, Charles XI manages to break through the Danish lines and reach the remaining Swedish troops in Lund, who, under the king’s command, move northwards behind the Danes.
15.15—17.00 the final battle takes place in the area of Norra Nöbbelöv/Vallkärra. The Danish army is surrounded and the ensuing hand-to-hand battle is fierce with terrible loss of life. Under the protection of early winter darkness, the remaining Danish troops manage to retreat towards Landskrona. The Swedes are too exhausted to pursue them. Despite the numerical superiority of the Danes, the Battle of Lund is a victory for Sweden – but at a very high price. Some 6000-6500 Danes and 3000-3500 Swedes are killed on the battlefield, i.e. approx. half of all those who took part, which makes it one of history’s bloodiest battles in terms of relative losses. The Battle of Lund was not the end of the conflicts in Skåne but the most significant event. Peace was not declared until August 1679, in Lund, with neither side achieving any territorial gains. The boundaries laid out in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658 were now finalized